In this article we will continue to write about the history of Astrology from the previous article…The New Astrology blossomed into this fertile ground since the times of Great Alexander and Indians adopted the zodiac circle divided into 12 sectors as also many Greek technical terms. Even their Gods learned to obey at the signs of the stars.
It is being said that powerful Vishnu was frightened so much by the painful influence of Saturn that abandoned his heavenly throne for about a period of whole 19 years and wandering disguised into the forest, as an elephant. In the ancient Far East people were maintaining all the traditions of an astrological research. In China, the “Heavenly Kingdom”, the emperor had been scarves with Polar Star, because around it the whole universe was revolved for along time. The priests-astrologers of the country recorded elements before even Babylonians start to do the same, probably since the 28th century BC the Chinese recorded the first confirmed eclipse in 1361 BC. They were thinking that the uranian conjunctions were affecting too much of the human issues, provoking even the uprising but also the fall of dynasties that ruled the country.
Confucius, who is a great philosopher around the 500 BC used to say that “the sky sends goods or bad omen and then people are acting likewise.”
The Greek army never reached that remoted country, but some common ideas may passed in China and West through trading pathways of the Central Asia. Chinese people were using a divided zodiac circle in 12 sectors, but the zodiac signs were not diving the sky, but just defining the sectors of the Ecuador, like Babylonians divided the day in 12 double hours. The Emperor Wu, in the second century BC build a tower – an observatory- that definitely inspired by the Babylonian Ziggurat. The line of the predictions that occurred were looking like that great Mesopotamian text Enuma Anu Enlil, which is a major series of 68 or 70 tablets dealing with Babylonian astrology. The bulk of the work is a substantial collection of omens, estimated to number between 6500 and 7000, which interpret a wide variety of celestial and atmospheric phenomena in terms relevant to the king and state. Enuma Anu Enlil is the principal source of omens used in the regular astrological reports that were sent to the Neo-Assyrian king by his entourage of scholars. There are well over 500 such reports published in volume 8 of the State Archives of Assyria A majority of these reports simply list the relevant omens that best describe recent celestial events and many add brief explanatory comments concerning the interpretation of the omens for the benefit of the king.
A typical report dealing with the first appearance of the moon on the first day of the month is exemplified by Report 10 from volume 8 of the State Archives:
- If the moon becomes visible on the first day: reliable speech; the land will be happy.
- If the day reaches its normal length: a reign of long days.
- If the moon at its appearance wears a crown: the king will reach the highest rank.
The atomic horoscopes probably came in the country from the West and used them after the Greeks and Babylonians. But for the Chinese the decisive time was not the moment of the birth but the time of the conception. The deep differences would remain there since that country was absolutely isolated from the rest of the world. Chinese people used to see the world like a box with many different apartments, dexterously built around the number 5.Except the five planets there were also five elements (wood, fire, water, metal and earth),five geographical areas (four horizontal points and a central one), five original colors, flavors, five basic music notes. Additionally, the two original powers, the Yin and Yang- the female, passive and the other one is male, active-were ruling every activity. All astrologers were working for the emperor, like the members of a close and controlled royal bureaucracy. It was a position of power but a little bit dangerous too, for example, when there was once a solar eclipse in 2135 BC, the head of the astrologers decapitated with his assistant because he did not warned the emperor.
The desire for free research that exist in Egypt during the third century BC was in a complete contradiction with the Chinese traditional limited environment of course. Alexandria, which was built on the Delta of the Nile from the conqueror himself, was the center of the West Civilization of that time and had been developed in a huge and significant metropolis. The huge public buildings were also containing the greatest library of the world, where the scholars had access into 700.000 manuscripts. Eratosthenes and Efclides- who also calculated the perimeter of the earth with a difference almost at the 15%-both of them studied there too.
Egyptians were claiming that were studying the skies for 500.00 years, despite all that, in the field of astrology a lot of work had been already done before the coming of the Greeks. Their priests were identifying their gods with the celestial bodies just to be sure about it. The Moon was Osiris, a compassionate goddess that was shadowed by the eclipses, by her daemon brother Seth. The god Sun, Ra, was the King of the world, and was sailing along of the sky during the day, with his uranian ship and during the night he was fighting against the dark and underground powers. His earth incarnation was the Pharaoh. The three of them were coming from Nout, the primordial mother that was containing the night celestial concave. But when the Egyptians wanted to predict the future, were based at the greatest part to the messages were coming from their dreams. Nobody was really thinking of consulting the visible skies.
There was only one exception. The highest source of prosperity for Egypt, was the river Nile, and the yearly floods were bringing moisture and fruitfulness to the dry soil. So, it was very important fro everyone to know when the floods would occur and the best way to know this were the stars. Almost a week before, the called Kina the Syrian, was appearing at the eastern horizon at the dawn. Every year the same event was taking place with the regularity beats of a Clock. Once every 365 days and a few hours, Kina was rising with the Sun.A few days after the Nile was flooding up. The result is, while the Greeks and Babylonians were still struggling to equilibrate the moon months with the solar year, Egyptians succeed one of the greatest scientific achievements, a fixed duration of the year. Every Greek city, for instance, had a different calendar. However, the Egyptians had already find the solution and that was a solar calendar of 365 days by a few hours difference, but that was functioning of course.
It is not necessary to tell that this calendar promoted the astronomy and astrology. Egyptians divided their calendar into twelve months and each one of them had 30 days and that is giving us whole 360 days. The rest of the five days, because were out of the right time, were dedicated into religious celebrations.
For many centuries, Alexandria was the center of astrological research and the scholars used to make long thesis about the most apocryphal points of this art. Horoscopes were becoming more and more complicating, the symbols of the zodiac circle were engraved on the temples by the priests and on the graves by the aristocrats. There was no doubt, that the works of the foreign researchers were finding their way towards the great library of Alexandria. One of the well-known foreign philosophers was Aristarchus from Samos, who believed then to the extreme theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun. He also mentioned that she revolves around her axis infuriating by this way the day and the night-but no one pay attention to his sayings. The ideas of Hipparchus from Nicaea, seemed to be more thought-provoking, who was indeed a scientist of the stars with many extraordinary abilities. Hipparchus recorded over 1000 stars and their geographical position and also suggested the Meridian system and of the geographical amplitude.
But astrologers were showing intense interest about his zodiacal researches, who had discovered that the zodiac circle, in relation to the seasons, was sliding back every year a little bit. At the times of Sumerians, almost 2000 years before, it was Taurus that was rising at the air equinox. During the times of Hipparchus, it was Aries. This mistake, known as a “migration of the equinoxes “, happens because of a slow but stable deviation of the Earth axis, but Hipparchus had no idea which was the cause.
The fact, which the zodiac circle, which is the key of the astrology prediction, is not stable and eternal had become clearly understood. Their change are constant with the passage of the millenniums and the zodiac signs are being rearranged in relation with the time of the year. An Alexandrian Greek, who was born on the 21st of March, on the day of the air equinox, certainly would belong at the zodiac sign of Aries. But if the astrologers of the 2oth century were following faithfully the Alexandrian times then the child that was born would belong at the zodiac sign of Pisces now. However, no matter how that sounds irrational, the modern Western astrologers are applying the zodiac signs as they appear at the Alexandrian times, when the zodiac circle was defined for the first time. Indian astrologers, on the other hand, are accepting the theory of the equinoxes shift and let the star that rises at the dawn to define the zodiac sign.While Greeks and Egyptians astrologers were developing the art of astrology, the center of the power started to be shifted to the west, which was the young and aggressive imperial power of Rome. The first Romans never had significant spiritual civilization and willingly accepted the ancient wisdom of the people they conquered.